Appendix I: Indicator Traits for the Eight Affordances Framework of Digital Educational Resources

The following table provides indicators for the Eight Affordances Framework for exploring pedagogical possibilities of digital educational resources described in the second chapter of this resource.

Affordance Indicators
1.     Ubiquitous Learning
  1. Anytime, anywhere availability to broaden educational access
  2. Blurring the traditional boundaries of space and time: extending the scope of learning beyond the walls of the classroom and the cells of the institution’s timetable
  3. Curriculum-community connections


2.    Active Knowledge Making
  1. Learners as designers of knowledge and meaning
  2. Demonstrated capacity to collect information, conceptualize its meaning, think critically and apply in real contexts
  3. Making knowledge artefacts: projects, objects, social interventions
  4. Learners have autonomy, control and agency as knowledge creators
  5. Discovery and exploration
  6. Opportunities for innovation and creativity
3.   Multimodal Meaning
  1. using a variety of modes of meaning (text, image, space, body, audio, simulations, virtual and augmented reality)
  2. Making available a wide range of digital media resources
  3. Supporting learners to make knowledge resources in a wide ranges of digital and non-digital media
4.   Recursive Feedback
  1. Appropriate feedback during learning and feedback-on-feedback
  2. Assessments for learning that promote learning from mistakes and foster deeper meaning
  3. Digital learning analytics
  4. Peer review
  5. Dashboard visualizations that make progress explicit to learners and instructors
5.    Collaborative Intelligence
  1. Peer-to-Peer learning
  2. Group activities and social networking
  3. Distributed cognition: learning by thinking, aware of the social nature of knowledge
  4. Acknowledging the community and intellectual provenance of information and concepts
  5. Networks of knowledge and learning
6.   Differentiated Learning
  1. Variable learning paths
  2. Adaptive and personalized learning
  3. Self-regulation and self-management of learning
  4. Recognizing learner diversity and harnessing diversity as a productive learning resource
  5. Supporting students to express their own identities, develop personal pathways
  6. Trust and open-ness: nurturing digital citizenship


7.   Metacognition
  1. Cognition = the empirical, the topic, the theme — always linked to metacognition, hence multilevel thinking
  2. Metacognition = the disciplinary framework, thinking conceptually/theoretically, regulating one’s own thinking processes
  3. Linking concrete and particular to the abstract, general and conceptual
  4. Complex problem solving, addressing challenges with holistic, multiperspectival thinking
  5. Authentic learning, linking disciplinary practice to local and personal circumstances
8.   Accessibility
  1. Affordability (with Open Access as one option)
  2. Ownership: credit to creators, whether resources are free or at a price
  3. Interoperability, removing digital systems silos in a way that a system can freely communicate and operate with other external systems and thereby open to them
  4. Hybrid deployment across multiple platforms, browsers, operating systems and devices in a way that an application or resource is accessible over more than one platform like Windows, Mac. Android, Unix and Ubuntu
  5. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) requirements for disability accessibility
  6. Internationalization of functionalities in all resources and their interfaces, facilitating ease of translation


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Tools for Creating OER by Isaac Mulolani is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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